I worry that a book like THE BETTER ANGEL by Roy Morris Jr. in 2000 would not get written today because Walt Whitman, despite nursing thousands of young, suffering soldiers in overfilled hospitals who fought a war that freed slaves, expressed what we consider today to be offensive (and ignorant) opinions about slaves.
Racism as a word needs to go. Its meaning does not allow for any complexity of feeling or thought. It shuts down avenues of reconciliation and fails to deal with the deeper issues which are basic: human hatred and ignorance. Cain murdered his brother as one of the first acts in the Bible. Anyone with maturity and experience lies to themselves if they think they are above nursing hatreds. Tell me at least one time when this hatred based on jealousy, past wrongs or misunderstanding ever brought peace to anyone, yet still we run to our little groups and cast hateful looks and words at others.
To take the argument away from American race relations for a minute I’d like to use the example of the long animosity between England and Ireland. Depending on who you talk to, people will bring up various battles and laws and wrongs reaching back a thousand years. Some people carry the bitterness of a lost battle between men generations ago into their daily lives today with no positive results.
How as honest humans can we not admit that we all have ingrained hierarchies of human importance? Some cheer for new late-term abortion laws while others like myself are sickened at the callousness and laughter on the faces of those signing infanticide into practice. Others decry borders and the mistreatment of foreigners. The hypocrisy of humanity is sickening. Yet I must remind myself that I am part of humanity.
I can be incredibly callous to suffering. I can make harsh and ignorant judgments based on race, class, religion and even the motives my husband has for doing something I don’t understand or like.
“Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother’s eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye?”
I briefly entered the fray of blaming my insecurities and deficiencies on gender, genealogy and religion. Guess where it got me — nowhere.
People don’t like to hear it (I didn’t want to hear it until my sins could be hidden no longer) but seeking revenge or pity or money won’t cure bitterness. Only forgiveness does. People don’t like being humbled. It goes against the self-esteem religion. It goes against the I’m a star and you need to respect and idolize me religion.
What Jesus said is still as counter cultural and revolutionary today as it was two thousand years ago:
“Blessed are the poor in spirit,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are those who mourn,
for they will be comforted.
Blessed are the meek,
for they will inherit the earth.
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness,
for they will be filled.
Blessed are the merciful,
for they will be shown mercy.
Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they will see God.
Blessed are the peacemakers,
for they will be called sons of God.
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Be careful not to skim over these words. They are the keys to a life worth living.
Walt Whitman just before the Civil War was a man without a cause. He rode the city streets by day and spent the nights drinking and carousing. He was depressed.
His brother enlisted in the army at the start of the war. Walt left in search of him when he was hospitalized months later. He had planned to stay only briefly until he encountered the sick and dying young boys — thousands of them — in places we would never send our dogs to get well today.
Cynics might say Walt stayed because he had always had affectionate feelings toward younger men and maybe there is some truth to that, but anyone who thinks they are 100% altruistic is again living under serious delusion.
The many forgotten soldiers with no family to advocate for them adored Walt’s visits and the man himself. Evidenced by the letters he received late in life from grateful veterans, they believed without his small kindnesses they would not have survived the disease-ridden and terrifying hospitals.
As some of you may remember, I’m researching my young relatives who fought and died for the Union. Two died of disease early on but one was injured at Second Bull Run and spent months in hospital before being discharged only to enlist again and die a few days before Appomattox. Every wrecked young man Walt showed special kindness to could have been someone very much like my cousin Waldo who enlisted when he was only fifteen.
The Civil War Dead
We so often think in terms of big numbers and so little do we ponder and appreciate the individuals whose tiny lives flickered so briefly. Their hopes, their mannerisms, the things that made them laugh and cry — Walt saw to those things and loved the boys “like father, like mother, like lover and friend.” He saw these suffering boys made in the image of God — fearfully and wonderfully made — and mourned for them and with them. He brought ice cream on hot days when no one wanted to be in the stinking tents of human waste and rotting flesh.
Walt wrote once about Private John A. Holmes, a man I assume most of us have never heard of. Like 54 percent of the Union soldiers and 99 percent of the Confederates, Holmes was stricken with diarrhea — “a disease that would claim the lives of nearly one hundred thousand men.”
After weeks in camp Holmes was sent by steamer to Washington. On the boat he was too weak to open his bag to pull out a blanket. When a crew member refused to help him, Holmes was forced to sleep exposed to the elements with chills and fever. At the Washington hospital he was stripped naked and scrubbed under a cold shower until he fainted in the nurses’ arms.
For days he suffered in anonymity and hopelessness until Whitman noticed the poor boy’s look of despair when he stopped to make some encouraging remark.
“‘I saw as I looked that it was a case of administering to the affection first, and other nourishment and medicines afterward … I sat down with him without any fuss … wrote a letter to his folks … and gave him some small gifts and told him I would come again soon.’
“Holmes said he would like to buy a glass of milk from the woman who peddled it in the wards and Whitman gave him a little change. The young man immediately burst into tears.”
John Holmes credited Walt’s first visit that day with saving his life. I like to think that my cousin Waldo had someone beside him during the 24 hour period between receiving his mortal gunshot wound to the thigh and the time he spent suffering in the hospital before he died. On reenlisting he had not gone back to the regiment from Cortland, NY (his home) so I have no idea if he had any close friends near by in the end. He was only 18 or 19 when he died. He was buried on a plantation far from home as his parents celebrated Lee’s surrender.
Walt Whitman considered his Civil War days to be the most important of his life.
His collection of poems from that time are his best. Long after the country moved on and long after the thousands of young men were buried and forgotten by all but genealogists, Whitman’s poems live on as a testimony to the uncomplaining bravery and suffering of a generation of young men and their families.
THE BETTER ANGEL Walt Whitman in the Civil War is a book to inspire the most calloused heart. How many of us give so freely of ourselves as Whitman did? He’s always been my favorite poet, but now he is one of my favorite men.
A Twilight Song by Walt Whitman
As I sit in twilight late alone by the flickering oak-flame,
Musing on long-pass’d war-scenes—of the countless buried unknown
Of the vacant names, as unindented air’s and sea’s—the unreturn’d,
The brief truce after battle, with grim burial-squads, and the
Of gather’d from dead all America, North, South, East, West, whence
they came up,
From wooded Maine, New-England’s farms, from fertile Pennsylvania,
From the measureless West, Virginia, the South, the Carolinas, Texas,
(Even here in my room-shadows and half-lights in the noiseless
Again I see the stalwart ranks on-filing, rising—I hear the
rhythmic tramp of the armies;)
You million unwrit names all, all—you dark bequest from all the war,
A special verse for you—a flash of duty long neglected—your mystic
roll strangely gather’d here,
Each name recall’d by me from out the darkness and death’s ashes,
Henceforth to be, deep, deep within my heart recording, for many
Your mystic roll entire of unknown names, or North or South,
Embalm’d with love in this twilight song.
8 responses to “Walt Whitman in the Civil War”
I think you chose in Whitman the perfect subject for this discussion.
That we for some reason expect people to be perfect is beyond me. It just continues this polarization between people today and what we are doing with people in history. The phrase “context is everything” is my guide to the past. And while I am not advocating masking the flaws of historical figures, I am not for condemning them for their beliefs during the times in which they lived.
We are supposed to be evolving in our thoughts and how we treat others and I don’t see how we can move forward if we hold people hostage for what they believed in their times. How will history treat those of us today who think we “so accepting?” I probably say things everyday that I am unaware of and would absolutely blanch if judged so harshly.
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You are so right! it’s why I also see no point or logic in blaming people now for things people did in the past while not applauding what people have done in the past to end slavery and other horrible things that still go on today in many parts of the world.
If the agenda is to tear apart our past then what is the agenda for the future? I don’t really believe the human heart evolves. I think each generation has a choice how to use it.
Think of all the things people say when they are teenagers! I was a real jerk back then.
Thanks for reading!
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Beautifully written post Adrienne on a subject that can touch us all wherever we live. Cruelty and suffering in wars have been horrendous and continues.
The sad thing is that our society in peace also too often choose the dark within rather than the light.
Yes, the darkness is right in our faces these days. When people cheer and celebrate abortion in New York instead of seeing it as a somber thing I wonder how God will judge this generation.
Beautiful post. I agree with your musings on racism and how blanket accusations, especially towards people from a different time with a different set of knowledge to work with, erases nuance and understanding from a discussion. I relate to what you said about being cynical and judgemental sometimes. The Beatitudes are timeless in their counter culturalism, and they convict me to humble myself. Finally, I enjoyed learning more about Walt Whitman, especially since I watched Dead Poets Society this week. 🙂
Walt is such an interesting character and in high school I just loved reading Leaves of Grass. I think I can credit him for my real interest in the Civil War because I read his war poems on my own that year.
i enjoyed that movie!
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Thought provoking on many issues. Thanks.
Glad to give you something to think about, Eileen. LOL.